A protein known as dystrophin is essential for the normal functioning of muscles, the deficiency of this protein weakens the muscles and their working. A rare condition and a group of congenital diseases that causes mutilation and muscle weakness is called muscle dystrophy. The disorders differ in which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin. This type of muscular dystrophy affects the muscles of the eyelids, face, and throat, and it can weaken vision and swallowing. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Muscular dystrophy is caused by defects in certain genes, with type determined by the abnormal gene. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) there are more than 30 different types of muscular dystrophy (MD). Some types of muscular dystrophy cause abnormal and dangerous changes in the heartbeat. 1. There are several types of muscular dystrophy, wherein each type eventually leads to an increased disability, strength loss, and potential deformities. The goal of physical therapy is to improve strength in the large muscle groups and prevent scoliosis and contractures. Later on, the hip and thigh muscles become weaker, making activities such as walking up stairs difficult. Muscle biopsy. The first symptoms usually are difficulty swallowing and drooping eyelids. Men also tend to be affected earlier and more severely. Prescription drugs are available to control muscular dystrophy symptoms or slow their progression. Others develop problems in early childhood. Curving of the spine (scoliosis). A rare type of muscular dystrophy that commonly affects boys. There are more than 30 types of muscular dystrophy that result in muscle weakness. Most of the muscular dystrophies are a form of inherited disease called X-linked disorders or genetic diseases that mothers can transmit to their sons even though the mothers themselves are unaffected by the disease. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Muscular Dystrophy Symptoms by Type Myotonic (also called MMD or Steinert's disease). Myotonic dystrophy is the most common adult form of muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic diseases that affect the nervous system and cause progressive muscle weakening and degeneration. Types of muscular dystrophy. There are many different types of muscular dystrophy (MD). It is similar to Duchenne but progresses more slowly and people exhibit milder symptoms which generally develop in the teen years, but can expand to the mid-20s or later. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: “How is Muscular Dystrophy Diagnosed?” “Muscular Dystrophy Fact Sheet.”, Sarepta Therapeutics: “Sarepta Therapeutics Announces FDA Approval of VYONDYS 53 (golodirsen) Injection for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in Patients Amenable to Skipping Exon 53.”, NYU Langone Health: “Surgery for Muscular Dystrophy.”, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: “Muscular Dystrophy: Hope Through Research.”, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: “Neuromuscular Scoliosis.”. The first symptoms are often mobility problems affecting the hip girdle. Muscular Dystrophy treatment with stem cells has shown the potential of repair and regeneration of the damaged muscular tissues. These imaging tests give the doctor a look at muscle quality and can reveal if fat is replacing muscle tissue. Myotonic muscular dystrophy, which is sometimes called myotonic dystrophy, is a type of muscular dystrophy.It is estimated that the condition affects about one in 8,000 people worldwide. These are basically heterogeneous disorders that cause progressive weakness and wasting of the muscles with time. The primary forms of muscular dystrophy are outlined below. Types of Muscular Dystrophy. Nine Forms of Muscular Dystrophy. DMD occurs because the body is unable to make dystrophin, a protein necessary for maintaining muscle cells and keeping them intact. Here is more information about nine of the most common forms. This type of muscular dystrophy likewise more typically impacts young boys, according to iytmed.com. A female who carries the defective X chromosome can pass the disease to their son (whose other chromosome is a Y, from the father). Vision problems. Unlike the other muscular dystrophies, the muscle weakness is accompanied by myotonia (delayed relaxation of muscles after contraction) and by various other non-muscular symptoms. Weakness in the large muscles of the legs makes it difficult to walk, stand, kneel, or climb. How quickly limb-girdle MD progresses depends on the specific type. It can also cause respiratory disorders. Surgery may be recommended to manage or correct complications of muscular dystrophy. There are many forms of muscular dystrophy (MD). Symptoms of Becker MD usually begin in childhood, but they're often relatively mild at this point. As the condition progresses, it usually affects the muscles in the: Around half of all people with facioscapulohumeral MD develop weakness in their leg muscles, and 1 or 2 in every 10 people with the condition will eventually need a wheelchair. Special medical care may help extend life a bit, but even these patients rarely go past their 30s. Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of inherited diseases in which the muscles that control movement (called voluntary muscles) progressively weaken. Symptoms of oculopharyngeal MD can include: As the eyelids droop, they can cover the eyes and impair vision. As with other types of muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy involves progressive muscle weakness and muscle wasting. Some types of muscular dystrophy affect only males; some people with MD enjoy a normal life span with mild symptoms that progress very slowly; others experience swift and severe muscle weakness and wasting, dying in their late teens to early 20s. Usually this type of muscular dystrophy doesn't appear until the teenage years or later in life. Becker muscular dystrophy occurs when a different mutation in the same gene results in some dystrophin, but it's either not enough or it's poor in quality. Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In 1986, researchers discovered the gene that, when defective or flawed, causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It's also possible to develop double vision. About 1 in 3 people with facioscapulohumeral MD are unaware of any symptoms until well into adulthood. Medications for muscular dystrophy include: Physical therapy helps keep joints and muscles flexible. Facioscapulohumeral MD can affect both men and women. Individuals with the disease eventually lose their walking ability and need assistance to walk. Blood samples can be examined for mutations in some of the genes that cause types of muscular dystrophy. Becker MD also affects similar areas of the body to Duchenne MD, although the symptoms tend to be less severe. Many people have a normal life expectancy, but people with the more severe congenital form (present from birth) may die while still a newborn baby, or only survive for a few years. Other types of Muscular Dystrophy; Through advances in medical care, children with muscular dystrophy are living longer than ever before. Muscular dystrophy is diagnosed using several different tests. Some types are also associated with problems in other organs. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes (mutations) interfere with the production of proteins needed to form healthy muscle.There are many different kinds of muscular dystrophy. A small piece of muscle can be removed through an incision or with a hollow needle. Muscular dystrophy can run in families, or a person can be the first in their family to have a muscular dystrophy. The condition can also affect the intercostal muscles (muscle tissue between the ribs) and the diaphragm (the large, thin sheet of muscle between the chest and abdomen). Most people with Becker MD will be able to walk into their 40s and 50s but often find they need to use a wheelchair as their condition progresses. Men carry one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Close menu. Muscular dystrophy is a collective name for a group of hereditary muscular disorders that causes weakening and eventual breakdown of the skeletal muscles over time. As a result, people with muscular dystrophy have muscle loss and weakness. Some types of muscular dystrophy cause clouding of the eye lens (cataracts). Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Limb-girdle types of muscular dystrophy (LGMD) – General – LGMD-1B (also known as Liminopathy – LGMD1C (also known as Caveolinopathy) Becker Muscular Dystrophy. Need for a wheelchair. Muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder, which is often characterized by a progressive type of muscular degeneration and weakness.There are several types of muscular dystrophy, wherein each type eventually leads to an increased disability, strength loss, and … Some people with myotonic dystrophy may never have a significant disability, although their heart rate will need to be monitored for abnormalities. The complications of muscular dystrophy depend on the type. All types cause muscle weakness, but the areas affected and the severity of the symptoms are different. Once the heart and respiratory muscles are damaged, Duchenne MD becomes life-threatening. The weakness starts early in childhood and gradually increases, affecting the child's ability to walk. A respiratory therapist can teach you and your child how to properly use a mask, nose device, or mouthpiece. With medical care, most people with Duchenne MD die from heart or respiratory failure before or during their 30s. Myotonic dystrophy (DM) includes two major types — DM1 and DM2 — both caused by genetic defects. Scientists have discovered and continue to search for the genetic defects that cause other forms of muscular dystrophy. In-frame deletions typically result in Becker muscular dystrophy, which usually has a more mild presentation (compared to Duchenne) because there is some dystrophin protein present in the cells. 2. An electrocardiogram may be done to check for an abnormal heartbeat. Your doctor is likely to start with a medical history and physical examination.After that, your doctor may recommend: 1. Braces, walkers, or wheelchairs help provide mobility and independence to people with muscular dystrophy. All rights reserved. One example is a nerve conduction study, also called a nerve function test, or electromyography (EMG). Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy usually appears in men and women ages 40 to 50. As a result of the way it's inherited (see causes of MD), Duchenne MD mostly affects boys. The slow heartbeat can often be treated successfully with an implanted pacemaker. Life Expectancy. Due to the risk of serious heart and respiratory problems, someone with Emery-Dreifuss MD will often have a shortened life expectancy. You need a pacemaker to regulate it. Myotonic dystrophy can cause difficulties with general anaesthetics and childbirth. Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy. Life expectancy is middle age. If you have limb-girdle MD, you may experience: The muscle weakness will create problems such as difficulty lifting objects, running or getting out of a low seat. Start studying Types of muscular dystrophy. In a person who hasn't had a traumatic injury, high blood levels of CK suggest a muscle disease — such as muscular dystrophy. It tends to affect men slightly more than women, although the reason for this is unclear. This can result in people with the condition developing an abnormally slow heartbeat and palpitations, which can lead to episodes of lightheadedness or fainting. Muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder, which is often characterized by a progressive type of muscular degeneration and weakness. Or a person with muscular dystrophy may need spinal fusion surgery to treat scoliosis, or heart surgery to implant a pacemaker. Various tests are done to check nervous system function, reflexes, and coordination. Muscular dystrophy is a group of over 30 conditions that lead to muscle weakness and degeneration. Becker muscular dystrophy is similar to Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but it’s less severe. Myotonic dystrophy. Myotonic dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, and some types of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy are … There may be several different genetic types within each kind of muscular dystrophy, and people with the same kind of muscular dystrophy may experience different symptoms. Types of Muscular Dystrophy. Many types get worse slowly, whereas others can develop more rapidly. Becker Muscular Dystrophy; Signs and symptoms are similar to those of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but tend to be milder and progress more slowly. It affects the same number of men and women. As well as muscle weakness and wasting, symptoms can include: Myotonic dystrophy is highly variable and often gets worse very slowly, with little change over long periods of time. Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy. Becker: Progresses slowly, with onset in adolescence to early adulthood. Although each type of muscular dystrophy is caused by a different set of genetic mutations, most of these mutations prevent the body from … This condition affects the heart muscles, causing the heart's chambers to enlarge and the walls to get thinner. Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts, Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter, Muscular Dystrophy Causes and Risk Factors, Developmental Delays in Children Ages 3-5, Muscular Dystrophy: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Nancy O’Dell on mothering, writing, and ALS. There may be several different genetic types within each kind of muscular dystrophy, and people with the same kind of muscular dystrophy may experience different symptoms. Types of Myotonic Dystrophy. Most deaths related to myotonic dystrophy are related to pneumonia, breathing problems or heart problems. Symptoms of limb-girdle MD usually begin in late childhood or early adulthood, although the condition can affect people younger or older than this, depending on the specific type. © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. Limb-girdle MD refers to a number of related conditions that cause weakness in the big muscle groups at the base of the arms and legs (around the shoulders and hips). There are 9 types of muscular dystrophy, with each type involving an eventual loss of … Symptoms of the most common variety begin in childhood, mostly in boys. For example, cataract surgery may be done to replace a cloudy eye lens. Teenagers or adults may have shoulder aches, rounded shoulders or thin upper arms. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) OPMD is a type of muscular dystrophy characterized by weakening in the muscles that control the eyes and the throat. MRI or ultrasound. Electromyography. Many people will eventually become unable to walk. The most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults, myotonic muscular dystrophy affects both men and … When dystrophin is reduced or absent, the muscles break down, eventually causing problems … A speech therapist can also show you how to use speech communication devices. Types of Mutations. In oculopharyngeal MD, symptoms aren't usually apparent until a person is around 50 years old. However, it can become more severe as it's passed down through the generations. As with other types of muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy involves progressive muscle weakness and muscle wasting. They can also develop scoliosis, where the spine begins to curve sideways. As the condition progresses, it becomes harder to move. Page last reviewed: 24 May 2018 However, with treatment to manage the symptoms, a person's life expectancy isn't usually altered. These may include: Muscle biopsy. Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. Facioscapulohumeral MD can develop unevenly, so the muscles on one side of the body may be affected more than the other. A blood test can determine if you or your child has the gene. Muscular dystrophy can occur at any stage of life but it mostly occurs in childhood. In some forms of this disease, the heart and other organs are also affected. Other types don't surface until adulthood.There's no cure for muscular dystrophy. In … That raises the risk for lung infections such as pneumonia. People with muscular dystrophy have high levels of the enzyme creatine kinase. Analysis of the tissue sample can distinguish muscular dystrophies from other muscle diseases. This type of muscular dystrophy is rare, but lighter and only affects older people. Anyone suffering from this type of MD is likely to die in his/her early 20s. By their late-teens or early 20s, people with Duchenne MD may start to have breathing problems. Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy, the two most common types, are caused by a lack of a skeletal muscle membrane protein called dystrophin. There are nine major forms of muscular dystrophy: Muscular dystrophy can appear in infancy up to middle age or later, and its form and severity are determined in part by the age at which it occurs. Muscular dystrophy research: We offer clinical trials for certain types of muscular dystrophy, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Genes passed down through families can cause some forms of muscular dystrophy. Enzyme tests. If you have Becker MD, you're also at risk of developing dilated cardiomyopathy and breathing problems. People with Emery-Dreifuss MD will often eventually require a wheelchair, as they become unable to walk. The etiology of MD is an abnormality in the genetic code for specific muscle proteins. The most common type is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which typically affects males beginning around the age of four. There are nine major groupings of muscular dystrophy. Enzyme tests. It affects the muscles in the eyes (ocular) and the throat (pharyngeal). Physical therapy for muscular dystrophy may involve: Muscle weakness can affect the lungs, making breathing difficult. Muscular dystrophy can run in families, or a person can be the first in their family to have a muscular dystrophy. There may be difficulties diagnosing the condition accurately, and often the … This condition gets its name from the muscles that are affected most often: those of the face (facio-), around the shoulder blades (scapulo-), and in the upper arms (humeral). The most common type of muscular dystrophy is called Becker Muscular Dystrophy. Life expectancy for people with myotonic dystrophy can vary considerably. There are two types of myotonic muscular dystrophy, described as type 1 (DM 1) and type 2 (DM 2). It also gets worse very slowly. Bracing and tendon release surgery can help prevent some contractures. Heart problems. Menu Emery-Dreifuss. It is more common among people who are French-Canadian, Ashkenazi Jewish, or Hispanic. Like all types of MD, Emery-Dreifuss MD also causes progressive muscle weakness, usually beginning in the shoulders, upper arms and lower legs. Muscle weakness in the face and throat can make speaking difficult. Dysphagia can eventually make it difficult to swallow solid foods, liquids and even small amounts of saliva. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the major types of muscular dystrophy. Like all kinds of muscular dystrophy, it causes progressive weakness and degeneration of the muscles. Becker muscular dystrophy is similar to Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but it’s less severe. Neurological tests. 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